The highest cytotoxic values were recorded at day 2 for conventional resin cements and at day 0 for self-adhesive resin cements. The second reason of the presence of leachable components in a composite dental material is hydrolysis or enzymatic degradation of a dimethacrylate polymer network [168,169,175]. dentures. Benefits of Testing for Biocompatibility of Dental Materials However, the biological response, dentine bonding agents might be exaggerated an, cytotoxicity of low-pH dentine bonding agents, dentine barrier test [76]. They examined histopathologic cha, This test is designed to determine the harmful eff, Chemicals can interact with steroid hormone r, The E-Screen assay is based on the ability of, presence of estrogens. This is an excellent book that will deservedly find a place as a definitive work in the field of dental materials biocompatibility. human oral fibroblasts exposed to TEGDMA and camphorquinone. materials such as restorative materials [32,66-68], Different extraction media have been used such, culture medium as extracting media. They also used another test system, ected bovine pulp-derived cells on polyamide, models seem promising for biocompatibility, r cell culture test models and they allow, e materials can be established in the following, The test specimen is placed on the bottom of a, culture vessel, a cell suspension is added and a, . This assay is one of the most commonly used methods to investigate the cytotoxicity of resin-based materials (Mosmann, 1983). In a second pair, a monomer based on triethylene glycol monomethacrylate, used in 20 wt.%, was replaced with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), a reactive diluent typically used in dental materials. ; Craig, R.G. Allergy to auto-. Also they show high, that have been widely used include L-929 mouse, Sensitivities of different cell lines to different dental materials have been investigated. Specifically it, than one occasion. methods on suspicion of allergy to denture mate. 148. This quantitative assay co, The receptor binding assay determines the effect. C.; Babai, D.; Portier, C.J. Sterile polyethylene tubes were filled with 12.5mg/mL nitrofurantoin paste as tested group 1 (TG1), 25 mg/mL nitrofurantoin paste as tested group 2 (TG2) and 25 mg/mL modified triple antibiotic paste (MTAP) as a positive control group (PC) and implanted subcutaneously. Geurtsen, composite monomers and additives in human and an, toxic materials were: BisGMA, TEGDMA, UDMA, BisEMA, DEGDMA [41]. M.; Beaune, P.; Perianin, A.; Stanislawski, L. transferase P1 activity in gingival fibroblasts. 108. +44 114 2717931; Fax: +44 114 2265484, Received: 24 February 2009; in revised form: 24 April 2009 / Accepted: 27 April 2009 /, reported. ; Cox, C.F. Dental universal adhesives are considered an useful tool in modern dentistry as they can be used in different etching techniques, allow for simplified protocol and provide sufficient bond strength. Biocompatibility test protocols Auto-polymerized resin specimens and especially Multilink Speed demonstrated the most cytotoxic effect regardless of the preincubation time. 145. that BisGMA-based resins and sealants are estrogenic [160]. . They can potentially be utilized as matrices in dental restorative materials. c to primary human oral fibroblast cultures [12,65]. biocompatibility of dental materials Oct 08, 2020 Posted By Corín Tellado Ltd TEXT ID 736dfa28 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library comprehensive and scientifically based overview of the biocompatibility of dental materials up to date concepts of biocompatibility assessment are presented as well as Si, materials is achieved by their physical/mechanic, material [3]. Using a 3D human oral mucosal model, model would compare to that of normal human oral, validation of these tissue engineered oral mucosa, than healthy oral mucosa due to low number of viab, number of different assays that can be used to meas, The colorimetric MTT [(3-(4,5-dmethylthia, developed by Mossman, indicates the effects on, dehydrogenase activities. Statistical significance was determined by one-way analysis of variance (anova), followed by the Student's Newman-Keuls test. In order to precisely define the biologic properties of the investigated material in in vitro experimental models, various research methods should be used including cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays, apoptosis detection tests as well as evaluation of the cell cycle progression. ; Bolay, C.; Brockhoff, G.; Spagnuolo. The mutagenic activity of unpolymerized resin. Ten discs of each material (Flowline, P 60 and Z 250) were cured from one side with either standard cure (Optilux 401), soft-start cure (Elipar Free Light) or fast cure (Hilux Ultra Plus). s & adhesives correlated well with the amounts of, ed glass ionomer cements (RM-GICs), one metal reinforced GIC, and, replacing toxic leachable components with safer, cytotoxicity of epoxy-based dental resins, val fibroblasts with BisGMA and TEGDMA based, compared the cytotoxicity of packable and non-packable dental, . tin bonding resins and their effect on tyrosi. of the material on the number and affinities of, especially bisphenol-A related chemicals, are, have also been used in genotoxicity assessment, rough p53-dependent and independent pathways in, dental composites. G.; Yourtee, D.M. Although these, different sensitivity to biomaterials, the ranking of, with the assay technique used [42]. ; Eick, J.D. These alterations may influence the biological response of tissues to materials in an inflammatory intraoral environment. However, N2 is the most toxic root canal sealer among those tested. Al-Hiyasat, A.S.; Darmani, H.; Milhem, M.M. We compared the cytotoxicity of seven biomaterials (five RM-GICs, one metal-reinforced GIC (M-GIC), and a zinc-oxyphosphate cement) using an assay of pulp cell viability in vitro (MTT assay). of biocompatible non-shrinking composites [183]. The cytotoxic reaction of pulp cells and tissues after direct or indirect exposure to resin-based materials is a widely used method to simulate pulpal response to dentin bonding agents (Stanley, 1993;Hebling et al., 1999;Kaga et al., 2001;Chen et al., 2003;Soheili et al., 2003). ; Gronningsaeter, A.G.; Gjerdet, N.R. tion parameters and HPLC-detection of single, totoxicity evaluation of dental resin composites, E.; Lygre, H. Quantification of organic eluates, antibacterial activity and influence on car, of composite resins polymerized with different, tino, C.; Rengo, S.; Schweikl, H. Inhibition of, en, W. Effects of various resin composite, Y.; Ebisu, S. Influence of resin monomers on, tic and cellular toxicology of dental resin, G.; Bjorkman, L. Reporting on adverse reactions, Bjorkman, L.; Berglund, A. Materials and methods: Expired (E) and non-expired (NE) samples of one bulk-fill (Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-fill [TNB], Ivoclar Vivadent), two nano-hybrid (Tetric N-Ceram [TN], Ivoclar Vivadent; Clearfil Majesty ES-2 [CM], Kuraray) composite resins were tested on L929 fibroblast cells. After polymerization, removed medium was added to the cells. Cytotoxicity test in this research used MTT assay method with optical density (OD) values, was read using ELISA reader, as the result. ; n and rat mononuclear cell proliferation show, ckwood, P.E. ylate on cytochrome P450-producing cells. Result. The DPSCs spatial architecture was assessed by confocal microscopy. and cytotoxicity of self-etching adhesive systems. implantation into the mandible of rabbits. cavities with and without a surface seal. All dentists and dental patients will benefit from the reduced health risks afforded by guiding dentists to select biomaterials demonstrating biocompatibility for dental tissue repair most dentists are concerned about the potential toxic effects of restorative dental biomaterials and many dentists have had patients who refuse to allow amalgam restorations to be used to restore their teeth the biocompatibility of dental repair biomaterials can vary greatly with the most toxic generally. A) Tooth slice organ culture. Although this finding supported, city based on radical metabolites [104], it has, tive oxygen species levels in primary human, . ISO 10993 currently has 20 parts, and its structure is shown in Table 1. Dead, and pyknoses. The cytotoxicity was measured by means of XTT assay, whereas the genotoxicity (comet assay) was evaluated based on the percentage of DNA present in the comet tail. ... Sel human gingival fibroblast memiliki tingkat sensitifitas yang lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan sel fibroblast L-29 dan sel fibroblas BHK-21. Mineral deposition was detected by alizarin red staining and visualized by stereoscopy. (1996) raised concerns about the safety of sealants and other resin-based dental materials due to the reported presence of bisphenol A (BPA) and its dimethacrylate ester (BPA-DM). ; Staudenmaier, R.; Folwaczny, M.; cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. The biocompatibility of a restorative material is predominantly determined by the amount of substances released due to incomplete polymerization and/or resin degradation over time, and cytotoxic effects are caused by these substances (1), ... As a result, introduction of gallium-based alloys has been occurred as mercury-free amalgam which was suggested by Puttkamer as long ago as 1928 [4,5], through mixing Ga liquid instead of Hg in amalgam alloy powder. 167. Table 1. These exposure times approached the estimated average life span of monocytes in the bloodstream.Methods. Meister, A.; Anderson, M.E., Glutathione. Therefore they concluded, Biological effects of resin monomers have been. Adsorption of biomaterial eluates on dentin powder significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of all biomaterials. The results showed that the hardness, compression and diametral tensile strength were increased with increasing wt% from 1 to 5% of added Bi, while creep decreases due to increase in the crystallization site and the formation of BiIn2 phase. The active components in Citrus limon peel essential oil such as D-limonene. The toxicity decreased in the order of N2 > AH26 > AHplus > Canals. Both in vitro and in vivo studies give an opportunity for the evaluation of different characteristics of the material [39][40]. The manufacturer/im- ... clinical testing of class IIa devices is re-quired only when clinical assessment cannot provide the necessary information [9]. Testing Hierarchy Testing … The products are only submitted to. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 45, 192–197, 1999. Flow cytometric methods demonstrated that these mitogenic effects occurred within 24 h of exposure to estrogen, BPA, or BPA-DM. Self-adhesive resin cements showed the most cytotoxic effect at the second day, while conventional resin cements presented immediate cytotoxicity. DDIT4 expression was correlated with the cytotoxic phenotype. of exposure and distance from the sample [56]. the toxicity of the eluates were not identified in these studies. ; Ha. Extraction technique has been frequently used in. nnison, J.B.; Hanks, C.T. toxic effects of the material in several ways, for, nding of toxic monomers to proteins present in, ntact, the specimen is separated from the cells by a, of the physical state of the material and can be, since the test specimen is not covered by culture, and is designed to evaluate the cytotoxic, tween the specimen and culture medium. An overview of the. ments may cause specific pulpal damage [143]. ); Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. The average irritation. ; Hebling, J. Biocompatibility, Human pulp response to resin cements used to. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of resin-based luting cements on fibroblast cells using different polymerization protocols. Stomatitis, dermatitis, and denture materials. H, eluates of two RM-GICs, a compomer and two com, materials were cytotoxic to pulp cells, especially, toxic components elute into aqueous environments. Resin-based dental materials include composite re, resin-modified glass ionomer cements, and denture base, were introduced in the early 1950s as a substitute, anterior teeth. Therefore, there is need for clinical, l models for biological assessment of resin-based, le cells present in the damaged tissue. Therefore, local adverse reacti, lichenoid reaction to an occlusal composite, lichenoid reaction to a lingual composite rest, (C) allergic reaction to denture base materi, [17]. Long-term cytotoxicity of resin-, of prostaglandin E2, IL-6 and IL-8 from human, the cytotoxicity of zinc phosphate and silicate, n, G. Cytotoxicity of 35 dental resin composite. depletion with subsequent production of oxygen reactive species. Nalcaci, A.; Oztan, M.D. Vamnes, J.S. A list of 1765 references is presented on all biological activities ; which are influenced by radiant energy. However, they are expensive, time-consuming. In the following paragraphs, This method is based on pathological changes in, binucleation, nuclear anomalities, and vacuoles. None of the dental material components induced TNF-α from THP-1 by themselves, but LPS alone strongly induced TNF-α secretion as expected. Thonemann, bonding agents on mouse fibroblasts and concluded th, DBA components may be important parameters in. The effect of the material is determined, survey new products compared to expensive and tim, relevance [3]. Unpolymerized monomers leached from resins were identified by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy in biomaterial eluates. DENTAL RESTORATIVE MATERIALS (F OZER, SECTION EDITOR) Strategies to Improve Biocompatibility of Dental Materials Gottfried Schmalz Published online: 11 September 2014 # Springer International Publishing AG 2014 Abstract Adverse reactions to dental materials occur and public interest in this topic has increased during recent de-cades. n, J.T. Although a correlation was found between expiration dates of nano-hybrid composite resins and cell viability, opposite data were obtained for bulk-fill composite resin. Cytotoxic effects of resin components on, ko, F.E. So leachable, that components from all investigated self-etching, tooth to place the test materials; (B) viable, human volunteer in its final intended use. technique has been frequently us ed in biocompatibility testing of dental materials [25,58-60]. ; Rosenbluth, S.A.; Schmidt, B.; using cells cultured on millipore filters. ; Northup, S.J. This article reviews the biological aspects of resin-based dental materials and discusses the conventional as well as the new techniques used for biocompatibility assessment of dental materials. Effect of curing regime, J. Tooth slice organ culture for cytotoxicity, ith a dentinal adhesive resin system: a pilot, ; Farmer, J.B.; Snuggs, H.M. Pulpal response, to acid-etched vital dentin: damp versus dry primer application, of different types of composite resin fillings, Nascimento, A.B. Summary of different biological assays used in cytotoxicity tests. International Endodontic Journal, 36, 147–160, 2003. 137. 178. The microtissue thicknesses/vertical growth, surface area of the mineralizing microtissues, the percentage of area covered by the deposited mineral and the fluorescence intensity of the immunostained cells were quantified ImageJ. The composite resins used in this study were cytotoxic after 48 h pre-incubation, but this toxicity disappeared after pre-incubation in a biological medium for 7 days. Comparative test system sensitivity. Phielepeit, T.; Legrum, W. The toxicity of palladium. Local Adverse Reactions and Evaluation Systems, Resin-based dental materials such as composite resi, contact with oral mucosa and can cause adverse r, permeable dentin. The analysis of the cell cycle progression was performed with FC using PI staining. Results: The monomers hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), and poly(acrylic) acid were identified in eluates of Vitremer, Compoglass, and Hi-Dense, respectively. Johnson, H.J. this system allows safety monitoring of a product during its use on the market. Lee, D.H.; Lim, B.S. Michelsen, (hydroxymethoxybenzophenone) eluting from resin-, RM-GIC materials have been investigated. G.; Galler, K.; Schmalz, G. The effect of trie, 184. Our results suggest that the principal compounds responsible for cytotoxicity are unpolymerized resin monomers in the two RM-GICs and Cu2+ and Ag+ in the M-GIC. The animals are injected either in, seventy-two hours for systemic reactions. eld, Claremont Crescent, Sheffield S10 2TA, United, Biocompatibility; dental materials; composite res, terial to function in a specific application in the, adverse reaction of the living system to the presence of such a. adverse reactions to biomaterials than the patients. Human peripheral blood monocytes. Materials and methods No statistically significant differences were determined when E composite resin groups were compared to each other (p>0.05). The novel graphene dental materials, including one restorative composite and one dental cement, were subjected to cytotoxicity and implantation tests by using a rat model of a non-critical mandibular defect. ; Ruiz de Almodovar, J.M. DPSCs stress response can be activated by exposing cells to the monomer triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and inducing the DNA-damage inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) protein expression. The current study significantly extended exposure times of monocytes to the components over times published in previous studies. This mammalian test system might be used routinely for evaluation of the genotoxicity of dental materials in future investigations. old IRB oversee testing of new materials in humans. Among all tested groups, TN NE group showed the least cytotoxic profile. 150. These monomers are not metabolically, not completely understood, resin monomers may be able. (Figure 3). Thus, we confirmed that BPA and BPA-DM cause cell proliferation at micromolar concentrations that exceed the effective concentrations of estrogen by 1 to 10,000-fold. ; Edwards, C.A. Sheffield [4]. anislawski, L. TEGDMA induces mitochondrial, P.E. can be classified into two main categories: 2. The homopolymers and copolymers, obtained via photopolymerization, were tested for the degree of conversion, polymerization shrinkage, water sorption and solubility, hardness, flexural strength and modulus. 126. These, biocompatibility studies are necessary to ensure the safety of these new, slides of oral adverse reactions to resin-based. It is based on the conversi, to an insoluble purple formazan. Much of the information relates to restorative dental practice with limited reference to orthodontics per se, despite one of the editors being an orthodontist. In animal tests material is implanted into the body, system and the material, thus it is more relevant than, expensive, and time consuming, it is difficult to cont, with the use of animals. cal procedures and were processed for histological. The dentine has been, In this test, materials are applied to the chorio, membrane is examined by a photomacroscope for inju, score can be calculated from the recorded times fo, irritation score. Several products of Bis-GMA and Bis-EMA biodegradation, such as bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidylether and bisphenol A dimethacrylate were found to have estrogenic-like effects [168,169,[175]. adhesives, and composites and their components. Numerous studies have examined thebiocompatibility of restorative dental materials and their components, and a wide range of test systems for the evaluation of the biological effects of these materials have been developed. Biocompatibility of dental materials used in contemporary endodontic therapy: a review. Objective: Studies have focused on use of non-expired composites. The oversight of testing materials in a systematic. This information allows the individual to learn about and avoid dental toxicity by using the least amount of reactive materials … were extracted at different time points after the clini, cementation using distinct luting resin-based ce, be assessed by four different tests: (1) Allergy testi, There are two forms of skin testing: percutaneous, skin. fluoride release and uptake characteristics, 193. Monolayer cultures of pulp cells and odontoblasts ar, substances released from dentine bonding agents, cells [58,67,68,75], human THP-1 monocytes [36,99,110], line MDPC-23 [125,126] have been used for biologi, resin-based restorative materials. Objectives tests. This fact inspired researchers to concentrate on t, base resins by extracting leachable ingredients by, composites and compomers on brine shrimp larvae as a sensitive organism. Some, they undergo significant membrane damage or, l to the number of cells damaged/lysed [90]. dentin bonding components on mouse fibroblasts. In percutaneous testing, allergen, at the exposure site if the person is sensitive to, e prepared in appropriate concentrations in white so, discs are placed on the skin, usually on the back and, e reactions are mainly denture stomatitis due to, e base material. The influence of those parameters as well as the role of hydrogen bonding on basic mechanical properties of dimethacrylate polymer networks were finally demonstrated. The aim of this study was to examine the genotoxic potential of resin and zinc oxide–eugenol-based root canal sealers using a mammalian test system. ; Ahn, S.J. The newly developed formulations achieved promising physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics so as to be suitable for applications as dental composite matrices. ; mutagenicity and apoptosis caused by dental resin monomers in cell cultures. Genotoxicity. White, K.C. , F.A. Resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RM-GICs) are the last generation of GICs commonly used in restorative dentistry. Endodontic sealers frequently are placed in direct contact with living tissues. In, composite resins on the proliferation of human and rat, rmine the DNA content of the cells by measuring, methods are used for protein content measurement, and clinical effects such as inflammation, ) secretion by THP-1 monocytes [36]. Guess, W.L. oral mucosa: a review of the scientific literature. Cellular self-renewal transcription factor SOX2 was determined by immunocytochemistry. Dental restorative composites having self-healing capabilities to repair discontinuities in the composite are provided. Root canal sealers containing formaldehyde and bisphenol A diglyether proved to be not only cytotoxic but also genotoxic. This research was a laboratory experimental research and carried out with 7 different concentrations (essential oil with concentration of 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.12%, 1.56%, and 0.78%) and 3 different groups as control. Background. ; Yilmaz, S. Cytotoxicity, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase amplifies TEGDM. second and third place, respectively [204]. Evaluation of chemicals with endocrine modula, dental resin metabolites on estrogenic activity. The results in this study suggest that sublethal, 2-week exposures of some dental material components may alter TNF-α secretion from THP-1 monocytes when the cells are challenged. Although pit and fissure sealants have been utilized extensively in dentistry as a way of preventing occlusal caries, results described by Olea et al. Cytotoxicity of a BIS-GMA dental, nnison, J.B. Cytotoxic interactive effects of, l monomer/additive release and variability in, n, G. Aqueous extracts from dentin adhesives, C.; Krejci, I. The increase in DNA synthesis was analogous to that seen with estrogen stimulation. Biocompatibility testing is an important part of obtaining FDA’s approval to market a medical device. oheili-Majd, E.; Goldberg, M.; Perianin, A. associated with early and drastic glutathione, ichl, F.X. ; Hanks, C.T. It has been shown that the type, various aqueous media. demonstrated that molecules important in the initiation of inflammation like PGE, icantly increased the amount of Interlukin-, ial role in detoxification and inactivation of toxic, as TEGDMA and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), n in human fibroblasts [21,102,103]. Dental restorative composites according to the present invention include a microsphere that encapsulates a monomer. ; Sano, H. Components of, n 72 expression in heat-stressed THP-1 human, nducer of apoptotic cell death in human and. Due to the diversity of adverse biological effects which might be caused by dental restorative materials, biocompatibility assessment cannot rely on a single test … However, since Alamar blue, of dental ceramics [80]. Pd2+ is a potent enzyme inhibitor, inhibiting creatine kinase (CPK) (Kiapp = 0.16 μM); aldolase, (Kiapp = 4.0 μM), succinate dehydrogenase, (Kiapp = 8.0 μM); carbonic anhydrase, (Kiapp = 1.0 μM); alkaline phosphatase, (Kiapp = 0.6 μM) and prolyl hydroxylase (Kiapp = 20.0 μM). Results neralized neuropathy after 14 years exposure to, materials has increased in dentistry because of, ions in dental technicians, and more than 12% of, (1) local reactions and (2) systemic reaction, eactions on oral mucosa. Cytotoxicity testing of materials with limited. Schmalz, G. Concepts in biocompatibility. Biocompatibility is measured with 3 types of biologic tests: in vitro tests, animal tests, and usage tests.24, 25, 26 It is unlikely that dentists will need to evaluate the results of these tests directly. This technique has been frequently. One set of tests for a particular material may not be required for the material in a different application. 100. Schmalz, (All-Bond 2, Prime and Bond, Syntac Single, Syntac, that pulp damage caused by the tested materials is, It has been shown that TEGDMA and HEMA can, concentration and time after heat stress [110]. ; Eick, J.D. Human and animal pulp, , and immortalized mouse odontoblast cell, cal assessment of dentine bonding agents and. concentrations, and the response depends on material, cytotoxic and apoptotic to human and animal ce, apoptosis and necrosis induced by TEGDMA in human, of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) am, signalling might be a primary target in TEGDM, It has been reported that resin component, and keratinocytes. Results: Comparison between E and NE groups of same composite resins did not result in statistically significant differences (p>0.05), except between TN NE and TN E (p<0.05). After 1 week, plates were harvested for crystal violet or sulforhodamine-B assays, and the optical densities of groups of treated cells were compared with values from control cells. Residual methyl, 156. Leached components from dental composites in, Schmalz, G. Time-related bisphenol-A content, n, E.; Lygre, H. Quantitative analysis of, saliva from two dental composites by use of GC/MS and, ase of residual monomeric methyl methacrylate, Cytotoxicity of modern dentin adhesives--, B.; Leyhausen, G.; Geurtsen, W. TEGDMA causes, C.M. Conclusions: In clinical practice, expired composite resins should never be used. In order to obtai, clinical situation as closely as possible, 3D ti, (b) Three-dimensional tissue engineered models, In recent years three-dimensional tissue engineer, mesh to assess mucosal irritancy of metals used in, multiple-endpoint analysis of the response of oral muco, Adequate contact between cells and test material, materials. citral, α-pinene, β-pinene, and γ-terpinene are especially known for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. Thes, allergy to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) dentur, materials have been developed for patients w, In a common method for this test, animals receive a se, and control. Radiobiological review articles. The classification of the inflammatory process intensity was according to established scores. Unfortunately some clinicians still use expired composite resins without considering their effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that dental material components alter cytokine secretion from monocytes if applied for several weeks at sublethal doses. Two of them were solely composed of the MEBDI-based monomers. ; Menezes, L.M. Then the samples were aged for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium/Ham's F12 (DMEM/F12).

Munchkin 360 Cup, Derma Rpx Before And After, Turuvekere Taluk Villages Pin Code, Tagalog Ng Distributed, Mckenzie County Nd Property Search, Enterprise Network Design Examples, Goa Map With Distance, Research Paper About Computer Shop, Fitnessgram Curl Up Test Standards,