It concluded in 1991 that the over-representation of Indigenous people in the criminal justice system is inextricably linked to their socio-economic status. Canada’s national disgrace: Aboriginal and the justice system. Without tackling inequality there is no hope for changes in criminal statistics – there is a need for social justice, as well as economic distribution through progressive taxation (Piketty, 2013). If discrimination against ethnic minorities does exist, in the sentencing stages of the Criminal Justice System, this could be due to prejudices that are difficult to remove (Anderson and Taylor, 2007). Over-representation of Māori in the criminal justice system: An exploratory report (September 2007) 4 September 2007 Executive Summary Māori are disproportionately represented in criminal justice statistics to an alarming degree. The actual definition of a crime also depends on the country and time (e.g. The research explored public opinions on the role that race plays in the sentencing stages of the Criminal Justice System. For example the response rate was low (raising generalizability and representative issues), there was little to no control of who volunteered and completed the questionnaire (can lead to bias). We do not assume the existence of a single criminal justice system or definition of crime : both vary across space and time, and levels of overrepresentation vary accordingly. This lack of awareness of the different types of sentencing has significant consequences when trying to determine the role of race in the sentencing stages of the Criminal Justice System. The locations targeted are designated by softwares and algorithms. Multiculturalism in Britain is thus portrayed as culture clash. The questionnaires were conducted on a voluntary basis and respondents self-selected themselves to participate. 13th Apr 2017 Criminology Reference this. All work is written to order. To have a better and deeper understanding of the research findings, the research will be drawing on some theoretical concepts. Judges are therefore immune when acting in judicial capacity; this means the act does not apply to the sentencing of offenders in the courts (Gabbidon, 2010). These findings are supported by the theory of prejudices. Referencing the work of Hood brings the purpose of this research into context. As a result, about half the inmates in the United States are African-American” (The Atlantic, 1998). Those being researched were approached and informed about the topic of the questionnaire and were prompted to participate (volunteer sampling) this potentially included participants with a variation in gender and age who were interested in and had an opinion about the role of race in the sentencing process of the Criminal Justice System. Police had the highest percentage of doing a good job at 70 per cent (see appendix 4) and magistrates and prison officers were in the middle with 50 per cent each (see appendix 5 and 6). The discriminatory policy is especially aimed at black minority ethnic neighbourhoods : in NYC, “Out of a total of 14846 arrests, 13334 were non-white people“ (NYPD Report) and “US rates are in large part driven by disproportionate minority incarceration (…) African Americans are over six times as likely to be incarcerated as whites; Latinos over twice as likely.” (Hartney, 2006). The overrepresentation of ethnic minorities in crime and justice can be seen in early history, for example through the work of Frederick McClintock’s “crimes of violence” (1963), which studies violent crimes and finds that the conviction rate of black people increases by 13% in a span of 10 years (McClintock,1963). In the US’s highly individualistic and low job protection liberal welfare state, we notice stronger inequality and stronger incarceration rates, whereas in Scandinavian social democratic welfare states, inequality is lower and incarceration rates too. The Merritt Herald. ... that bias operates within the criminal justice system, such that any suspected or actual offending by … Sveinsson (2008). Firstly, certain groups are overrepresented, not because they are higher offenders, but because they are over-targeted : “Crime rates do not account for incarceration rates.” (Hartney, 2006). He observed that it would not seem right for a judge to ignore any public opinion when in court. Some of these included; taking the responsibility of finding out about what was expected of the research, taking the initiative in identifying any issues and problems, undertaking the recommended reading, producing the written work needed, consulting with tutors about any difficulties that are encountered when undertaking the work, generating ideas, setting realistic deadlines and ensure that the research meets with the required regulations (Babbie, 2010). The responses to the questions were limited and this meant that rich, in-depth and detailed information could not be gathered (Seale, 2004). Media discourse thus blames crime on ethnic identity. Furthermore, discriminatory policing is coupled to the systematic portrayal of crime by the media. Experience and knowledge is one of these functions, it is important for an individual to feel they know what they are doing and understand the world in which they do it in (Anderson and Taylor, 2007), in this case judges will most likely feel that convicting and sentencing ethnic minorities just because they have been treated so in past cases shows their understanding of the world and how things work. Economic inequality (Marx), but also social and cultural inequality (differences in social and cultural capital – Bourdieu), produce higher risk groups. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Essay competition 2018 third place: What are the effects of the rise of China on the present world order? To accept cookies, click continue. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! According to Gabbidon it is hard to determine that race affects or plays a role in this decision as the race of the defendants is not disclosed (Gabbidon 2010). There are only a few national data sources that provide criminal justice statistics disaggregated by Indigenous identity. It should be noted that where there are Royal Commission Recommendations, such as those relating to duty-of- Respondents were asked to estimate that out of every 50 ethnic minorities that were convicted of any of these crimes, how many ended up in prison. Sentencing will include all types of convictions, ranging from custodial/prison sentences to community service. Ultimately these accounts of Maori over-representation in the criminal justice system – and, indeed, of over-representation in poor economic outcomes – involve a process of cumulative circular causation through time of one event impacting on subsequent events both for the individual and through generations. Some authors have argued that the primary cause of over-representation is widespread criminality among Indigenous peoples, rather than what is sometimes termed 'systemic bias' in the criminal justice system.